As dominant players in the global economy, multinational enterprises (MNEs) have been called to take a more active role in the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), and recently their strategy has been increasingly influenced by the UN’s 2030 Agenda. MNEs’ managers are pressured by their stakeholders to integrate policies and practices which have a clear connection to sustainable development. Yet this represents a major managerial challenge, as the MNEs’ actions and strategic decisions may exacerbate rather than alleviate global challenges such as climate change, poverty, gender discrimination, unsustainable consumption, among others. Engagement in corporate social responsibility (CSR) is the most obvious and visible strategy to signal the willingness to be part of the solution, with the ultimate result of the attainment of the SDGs; but is this the only way to promote sustainable development? Probably a more holistic approach adopted by the MNEs would be beneficial for the achievement of a long-term twofold outcome, i.e. an increased efficiency with positive implications for the firm performance and survival, and the attainment of the SDGs. MNEs as channels of people, knowledge, capital and goods across geographical boundaries may leverage this call as an opportunity to rethink their positioning in the global value chains, to redesign their innovation and production processes, and to reconsider their investment strategies, going beyond CSR initiatives and embracing practices which are at the same time more aligned with the SDGs and more efficient. This panel discusses the opportunities and challenges posed by the UN’s 2030 Agenda to the MNEs and their managers.